An Overview of Polyester Fiber

An Overview of Polyester Fiber

Polyester fibers, and by this we mean largely poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibres, dominate the world synthetic fibers industry. They constitute, by a considerable margin, the largest volume (≈ 18 million tonnes/yr in 2000) of synthetics and far outweigh nylons, rayon and acrylic fibers. They are inexpensive, easily produced from petrochemical sources, and have a desirable range of physical properties. They are strong, lightweight, easily dyeable and wrinkle-resistant, and have very good wash–wear properties. Their versatility is legendary. Both as continuous filament yarn and staple fibre, they are used in countless varieties, blends and forms of textile apparel fibres, household and furnishing fabrics. They form microfibers for outdoor wear and sportswear. Polyesters are used in carpets, industrial fibers and yarns for tyre cords, car seat belts, filter cloths, tentage fabrics, sailcloth and so on.

This organic synthetic fiber is formed by the polycondensation of a diacid (terephtalat acid) and a dialcohol (glycol-ethylene). The used process to obtain this polymer is the melt spinning with 400% heat stretching.

Physical properties of Polyester Fibers:

  • Thickness : 1.2D, 1.5D , 2.0D
  • Color : white
  • Length : Variable cut lengths
  • Density : 1.39 g/cc
  • Tenacity : high, 40 to 80 cN/tex
  • Moisture regain : 0.4 % (at 65% R.H and 20°C)
  • Elongation : high, 15 to 45%
  • Flame reaction : melts, shrinks, black fumes
  • Melting point : 260°C

Characteristics of Polyester Fibers:

  1. Good strength
  2. Low absorbency
  3. Resistant to stretching and shrinking
  4. Resistant to most chemicals
  5. Easy to wash – Quick-drying
  6. Crisp and resilient when wet or dry
  7. Wrinkle and abrasion resistant
  8. Retains heat-set pleats and creases

End Uses of Polyester Fibers:

  • Clothing: blouses, shirts, children’s wear, dresses, neck ties, lining, lingerie and underwear, permanent press garments, slacks, suits.
  • Home furnishings: carpets, curtains, bed sheets and pillow covers.
  • Technical textiles: floor coverings, V-belts, ropes and nets, tire cord .

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